Advertisement

Prenatal stroke

Published:August 10, 2009DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.siny.2009.07.008

      Summary

      The main focus of this chapter is the comprehensive description of the neuropathology, the imaging correlates and underlying mechanisms of prenatal stroke. We describe established prenatal stroke in subgroups similar to postnatal stroke: arterial (forebrain or hindbrain) infarction, venous thrombosis, primary lobar haemorrhage. This longitudinal classification should facilitate the study of risk factors and mechanisms. Forebrain lesions of arterial type present as porencephaly, (hemi)hydranencephaly, multicystic encephalopathy or schizencephaly. Venous prenatal forebrain stroke presents as simple porencephaly (in some of genetic nature) and sinus thrombosis. A list of rare porencephaly-like conditions is added for differentiation from arterial and venous porencephaly. Hindbrain infarctions (so far the only reported variants seem to be of arterial nature) present as brainstem disconnection, focal brainstem destruction, uni- or bilateral cerebellar destruction and focal spinal cord ischaemia. Prenatal intracranial haemorrhage and congenital brain infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of prenatal stroke.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Larroche J.-C.
        Fetal encephalopathies of circulatory origin.
        Biol Neonate. 1986; 50: 61-74
        • Raju T.N.K.
        • Nelson K.B.
        • Ferriero D.
        • Lynch J.
        • the NICHD-NINDS Perinatal Stroke Workshop Participants
        Perinatal stroke: summary of a workshop sponsored by NICHD and NINDS on classification, challenges and opportunities.
        Pediatrics. 2007; 120: 609-616
        • Kirton A.
        • deVeber G.
        • Pontigon A.
        • Macgregor D.
        • Shroff M.
        Presumed perinatal ischemic stroke: vascular classification predicts outcomes.
        Ann Neurol. 2008; 63: 436-443
        • Larroche J.C.
        • Droullé P.
        • Delezoide A.L.
        • Narcy F.
        • Nessmann C.
        Brain damage in monozygous twins.
        Biol Neonate. 1990; 57: 261-278
        • Larroche J.C.
        • Girard N.
        • Narcy F.
        • Fallet C.
        Abnormal cortical plate (polymicrogyria), heterotopias and brain damage in monozygous twins.
        Biol Neonate. 1994; 65: 343-352
        • Bejar R.
        • Vigliocco G.
        • Gramajo H.
        Antenatal origins of neurological damage in newborn infants. II. Multiple gestations.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990; 162: 1230-1236
        • Padget D.H.
        The development of the cranial arteries in the human embryo.
        Contrib Embryol. 1948; 32: 205-261
        • Padget D.H.
        The cranial venous system in man in reference to development, adult configuration, and relation to the arteries.
        Am J Anat. 1956; 98: 307-356
        • Hunter A.G.W.
        Brain.
        in: Stevenson R.E. Hall J.G. Goodman R.M. Human malformations and related anomalies. Oxford monographs on medical genetics, No. 52. vol. II. Oxford University Press, Oxford2005: 469-514
        • Takada K.
        • Shiota M.
        • Ando M.
        • Kimura M.
        • Inoue K.
        Porencephaly and hydranencephaly: a neuropathological study of four autopsy cases.
        Brain Dev. 1989; 11: 51-56
        • Nixon G.W.
        • Johns R.E.
        • Myers G.G.
        Congenital porencephaly.
        Pediatrics. 1974; 54: 43-50
        • Tardieu M.
        • Evrard P.
        • Lyon G.
        Progressive expanding congenital porencephalies: a treatable cause of progressive encephalopathy.
        Pediatrics. 1981; 68: 198-202
        • Larroche J.C.
        • Amiel C.
        Thrombose de l'artère Sylvienne à la période néonatale.
        Arch Franç Pédiatr. 1966; 23: 257-264
        • Rolland M.
        • Sevely A.
        • Pradere M.
        • Manelfe C.
        • Regnier C.
        Occlusions artérielles cérébrales antenatales.
        Pédiatrie. 1983; 38: 151-160
        • Debus O.
        • Koch H.G.
        • Kurlemann G.
        • et al.
        Factor V Leiden and genetic defects of thrombophilia in childhood porencephaly.
        Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1998; 78: F121-F124
        • Guzzetta F.
        • Battaglia D.
        • Di Rocco C.
        • Caldarelli M.
        Symptomatic epilepsy in children with porencephalic cysts secondary to perinatal middle cerebral artery occlusion.
        Child's Nerv Syst. 2006; 22: 922-930
        • Clark R.
        • Linell E.
        Case report: prenatal occlusion of the internal carotid artery.
        J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr. 1954; 17: 295
        • Jung J.H.
        • Graham J.M.
        Congenital hydranencephaly/porencephaly due to vascular disruption in monozygotic twins.
        Pediatrics. 1984; 73: 467-469
        • Patten R.M.
        • Mack L.A.
        • Nyberg D.A.
        Twin embolization syndrome: prenatal sonographic detection and significance.
        Radiology. 1989; 173: 685-689
        • Mittelbronn M.
        • Beschorner R.
        • Schittenhelm J.
        • et al.
        Multiple thromboembolic events in fetofetal transfusion syndrome in triplets contributing to the understanding of pathogenesis of hydranencephaly in combination with polymicrogyria.
        Hum Pathol. 2006; 37: 1503-1507
        • Dominguez R.
        • Villa-Coro A.A.
        • Slopis J.M.
        • et al.
        Brain and ocular abnormalities in infants with in utero exposure to cocaine and other street drugs.
        Am J Dis Child. 1991; 145: 688-695
        • Bordarier C.
        • Robain O.
        • Ponsot G.
        Bilateral porencephalic defect in a newborn after injection of benzol during pregnancy.
        Brain Dev. 1991; 13: 126-129
        • Lynch J.K.
        • Han C.J.
        • Nee L.E.
        • Nelson K.B.
        Prothrombotic factors in children with stroke or porencephaly.
        Pediatrics. 2005; 116: 447-453
        • Tomas-Vila M.
        • Garcia-Tamarit P.
        • Garcia-Colino A.
        • Torregrosa-Pascual P.
        • Martinez-Salinas P.
        Schizencephaly associated with porencephaly in a girl with congenital cytomegalovirus infection.
        Rev Neurol. 2000; 31: 952-955
        • Deasy N.P.
        • Jarosz J.M.
        • Cox T.C.S.
        • Hughes E.
        Congenital varicella syndrome: cranial MRI in a long-term survivor.
        Neuroradiology. 1999; 41: 205-207
        • Friede R.L.
        Developmental neuropathology.
        Springer-Verlag, Berlin1989
        • Kawashima H.
        • Watanabe C.
        • Nishimata S.
        • et al.
        Hydranencephaly with cholestasis and giant hepatitis.
        J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006; 40: 956-958
        • Crome L.
        Hydrencephaly.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 1972; 14 (Annotation): 224-226
        • Halsey J.H.
        • Allen N.
        • Chamberlin H.R.
        The morphogenesis of hydranencephaly.
        J Neurol Sci. 1971; 12: 187-217
        • Doi H.
        • Tatsuno M.
        • Mizushima H.
        The use of two-dimensional Doppler sonography (color-Doppler) in the diagnosis of hydranencephaly.
        Child's Nerv Syst. 1990; 6: 456-458
        • Quek Y.W.
        • Su P.H.
        • Tsao T.F.
        • et al.
        Hydranencephaly associated with interruption of bilateral carotid arteries.
        Pediatr Neonatol. 2008; 49: 43-47
        • Stevenson D.A.
        • Hart B.L.
        • Clericuzio C.L.
        Hydranencephaly in an infant with vascular malformations.
        Am J Med Genet. 2001; 104: 295-298
        • Ahmadi A.
        • Fürste H.O.
        • Pringsheim W.
        • et al.
        Congenital aortic thrombosis with complete obliteration of the aortic arch and the great vessels.
        Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1983; 31: 256-259
        • Govaert P.
        • Vanhaesebrouck P.
        • De Praeter C.
        • Leroy J.
        Hydranencéphalie et prise d'oestrogènes pendant la grossesse.
        Arch Franç Pédiatr. 1989; 46: 235
        • McAdams R.M.
        Maternal systemic lupus erythematosus and hydranencephaly in a neonate: a case report.
        J Matern Fetal Neonat Med. 2005; 18: 279-281
        • Lyon G.
        • Robain O.
        Etude comparative des encéphalopathies circulatoires prénatales et para-natales (hydranencéphalies, porencéphalies et encéphalomalacies kystiques de la substance blanche).
        Acta Neuropathol. 1967; 9: 79-98
        • Ulmer S.
        • Moeller F.
        • Brockmann M.A.
        • Kuhtz-Buschbeck J.P.
        • Stephani U.
        • Jansen O.
        Living a normal life with the nondominant hemisphere: magnetic imaging findings and clinical outcome for a patient with left-hemispheric hydranencephaly.
        Pediatrics. 2005; 116: 242-245
        • Ong B.Y.
        • Ellison P.H.
        • Browning C.
        Intrauterine stroke in the neonate.
        Arch Neurol. 1983; 40: 55-56
        • Altschuler E.L.
        • Matsumura B.
        • Capoor J.
        • Weinshelbaum K.
        • Ghuznavi H.
        Left-hemispheric hydranencephaly with less favorable findings.
        Pediatrics. 2005; 116: 1603-1604
        • Ryzenman J.M.
        • Rothholtz V.S.
        • Wiet R.J.
        Porencephalic cyst: a review of the literature and management of a rare cause of cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea.
        Otol Neurotol. 2007; 28: 381-386
        • Yokochi K.
        • Iwase K.
        Bilateral internal carotid artery agenesis in a child with psychomotor developmental delay.
        Pediatr Neurol. 1996; 15: 76-78
        • Kjellin I.B.
        • Kaiserman K.B.
        • Curran J.G.
        • Geffner M.E.
        Aplasia of right internal carotid artery and hypopituitarism.
        Pediatr Radiol. 1999; 29: 586-588
        • Ottaviano G.
        • Calzolari F.
        • Martini A.
        Goldenhar syndrome in association with agenesia of the internal carotid artery.
        Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007; 71: 509-512
        • Rossi A.
        • Tortori-Donati P.
        Agenesis of bilateral internal carotid arteries in the PHACE syndrome.
        Am J Neuroradiol. 2006; 27: 1602
        • Tsiskaridze A.
        • Devuyst G.
        • de Freitas G.R.
        • van Melle G.
        • Bogousslavsky J.
        Stroke with internal carotid artery stenosis.
        Arch Neurol. 2001; 58: 605-609
        • Given 2nd, C.A.
        • Huang-Hellinger F.
        • Baker M.D.
        • Chepuri N.B.
        • Morris P.P.
        Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery: case reports and review of the collateral circulation.
        Am J Neuroradiol. 2001; 22: 1953-1959
        • Lee J.H.
        • Oh C.W.
        • Lee S.H.
        • Han D.H.
        Aplasia of the internal carotid artery.
        Acta Neurochir. 2003; 145 ([discussion 125]): 117-125
        • Lie T.A.
        Congenital anomalies of the carotid arteries.
        Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam1968 (pp. 35–51)
        • Taşar M.
        • Yetişer S.
        • Taşar A.
        • Uğurel S.
        • Gönül E.
        • Sağlam M.
        Congenital absence or hypoplasia of the carotid artery: radioclinical issues.
        Am J Otol. 2004; 25: 339-349
        • Harps E.
        • Helmke K.
        Diagnosis of congenital absence of internal carotid artery by power angiosonography.
        Eur Radiol. 1998; 8: 1245-1247
        • Fowler M.
        • Dow R.
        • White T.A.
        • Greer C.H.
        Congenital hydrocephalus–hydrencephaly in five siblings, with autopsy studies: a new disease.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 1972; 14: 173-188
        • Laurichesse-Delmas H.
        • Beaufrere A.M.
        • Martin A.
        • Kaemmerlen A.G.
        • Dechelotte P.
        • Lemery D.
        First-trimester features of Fowler syndrome (hydrocephaly–hydranencephaly proliferative vasculopathy).
        Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2002; 20: 612-615
        • Harding B.N.
        • Ramani P.
        • Thurley P.
        The familial syndrome of proliferative vasculopathy and hydranencephaly–hydrocephaly: immunocytochemical and ultrastructural evidence for endothelial proliferation.
        Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 1995; 21: 61-67
        • Castro-Gago M.
        • Pintos-Martinez E.
        • Forteza-Vila J.
        • et al.
        Congenital hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome with proliferative vasculopathy: a possible relation with mitochondrial dysfunction.
        J Child Neurol. 2001; 16: 858-862
        • Aicardi J.
        • Goutières F.
        • Hodebourg de Verbois A.
        Multicystic encephalomalacia of infants and its relation to abnormal gestation and hydranencephaly.
        J Neurol Sci. 1972; 15: 357-373
        • Lindenberg R.
        • Swanson P.D.
        Infantile hydranencephaly. A report of five cases of infarction of both cerebral hemispheres in infancy.
        Brain. 1967; 90: 839-850
        • Schmitt H.P.
        Multicystic encephalopathy – a polyetiologic condition in early infancy: morphologic, pathogenetic and clinical aspects.
        Brain Dev. 1984; 6: 1-9
        • Choi B.H.
        • Ruess W.R.
        • Kim R.C.
        Disturbances in neuronal migration and laminar cortical organization associated with multicystic encephalopathy in the Pena–Shokeir syndrome.
        Acta Neuropathol. 1986; 69: 177-183
        • Smith J.F.
        • Rodeck C.
        Multiple cystic and focal encephalomalacia in infancy and childhood with brain stem damage.
        J Neurol Sci. 1975; 25: 377-388
        • Charollais A.
        • Lacroix C.
        • Nouyrigat V.
        • Devictor D.
        • Landrieu P.
        Arthrogryposis and multicystic encephalopathy after acute fetal distress in the end stage of gestation.
        Neuropediatrics. 2001; 32: 49-52
        • Weig S.G.
        • Marshall P.C.
        • Abroms I.F.
        • Gauthier N.S.
        Patterns of cerebral injury and clinical presentation in the vascular disruptive syndrome of monozygotic twins.
        Pediatr Neurol. 1995; 13: 279-285
        • Iannetti P.
        • Galletti F.
        • Emanuelli O.
        • Sturniolo M.G.
        • Benedetti P.
        Severe outcome of brain perfusion failure: a pre-hydranencephalic state?.
        Brain Dev. 1991; 13: 447-451
        • Luciano R.
        • Zuppa A.A.
        • Maragliano G.
        • Gallini F.
        • Tortorolo G.
        Fetal encephalopathy after maternal anaphylaxis.
        Biol Neonate. 1997; 71: 190-193
        • Razafintsalama T.
        • Coiffic J.
        • Splete O.
        • Chevrant-Breton O.
        • Pladys P.
        • Poulain P.
        Encéphalopathie multikystique néonatale après accident de la voie publique avec lésions maternelles mineures.
        J Gynécol Obstét Biologie Réprod. 1999; 28: 483-487
        • Chang Y.
        • Soffer D.
        • Horoupian D.S.
        • Weiss L.M.
        Evolution of post-natal herpes simplex virus encephalitis to multicystic encephalopathy.
        Acta Neuropathol. 1990; 80: 666-670
        • Weidenheim K.M.
        • Bodhireddy S.R.
        • Nuovo G.J.
        • Nelson S.J.
        • Dickson D.W.
        Multicystic encephalopathy: review of eight cases with etiologic considerations.
        J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1995; 54: 268-275
        • Garten L.
        • Hueseman D.
        • Stoltenburg-Didinger G.
        • et al.
        Progressive multicystic encephalopathy: is there more than hypoxia–ischemia?.
        J Child Neurol. 2007; 22: 645-649
        • Sunada I.
        • Akano Y.
        • Tamura K.
        • Inoue T.
        • Fu Y.
        Local multicystic encephalopathy: case report.
        Radiat Med. 1995; 13: 255-257
        • Rahman N.
        • Adam K.
        Congenital polycystic disease of the brain: report of an unusual case.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 1986; 28: 62-76
        • Barth P.G.
        • Uylings H.B.M.
        • Stam F.C.
        Interhemispheral neuroepithelial (glio-ependymal) cysts, associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum and neocortical maldevelopment.
        Child's Brain. 1984; 11: 312-319
        • McGahan J.P.
        • Ellis W.
        • Lindfors K.K.
        • Lee B.C.
        • Arnold J.P.
        Congenital cerebrospinal fluid-containing intracranial abnormalities: a sonographic classification.
        J Clin Ultrasound. 1988; 16: 531-544
        • Griebel M.L.
        • Williams J.P.
        • Russell S.S.
        • Spence G.T.
        • Glasier C.M.
        Clinical and developmental findings in children with giant interhemispheric cysts and dysgenesis of the corpus callosum.
        Pediatr Neurol. 1995; 13: 119-124
        • Uematsu Y.
        • Kubo K.
        • Nishibayashi T.
        • Ozaki F.
        • Nakai K.
        • Itakura T.
        Interhemispheric neuroepithelial cyst associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum.
        Pediatr Neurosurg. 2000; 33: 31-36
        • Barkovich A.J.
        • Simon E.M.
        • Walsh C.A.
        Callosal agenesis with cyst: a better understanding and new classification.
        Neurology. 2001; 56: 220-227
        • Smith A.S.
        • Levine D.
        Appearance of an interhemispheric cyst associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum.
        Am J Neuroradiol. 2004; 25: 1037-1040
        • Pavone P.
        • Barone R.
        • Baieli S.
        • Parano E.
        • Incorpora E.
        • Ruggieri M.
        Callosal anomalies with interhemispheric cyst: expanding the phenotype.
        Acta Paediatr. 2005; 94: 1066-1072
        • Yakovlev P.
        • WadsworthSchizencephalies R.C.
        A study of congenital clefts in the cerebral mantle. I. Clefts with fused lips. II Clefts with hydrocephalus and separated lips.
        J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1946; 5 (169–206): 116-130
        • Barkovich A.J.
        • Kjos B.O.
        Schizencephaly: correlation of clinical findings with MR characteristics.
        Am J Neuroradiol. 1992; 13: 85-94
        • Hayashi N.
        • Tsutsumi Y.
        • Barkovich A.J.
        Morphological features and associated anomalies of schizencephaly in the clinical population: detailed analysis of MR images.
        Neuroradiology. 2002; 44: 418-427
        • Pellicer A.
        • Cabanas F.
        • Perez-Higueras A.
        • Garcia-Alix A.
        • Quero J.
        Neural migration disorders studied by cerebral ultrasound and colour Doppler flow imaging.
        Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1995; 73: F55-F61
        • Barkovich A.J.
        • Kuzniecky R.I.
        • Bollen A.W.
        • Grant P.E.
        Focal transmantle dysplasia: a specific malformation of cortical development.
        Neurology. 1997; 49: 1148-1152
        • Bataglia G.
        • Granata T.
        Schizencephaly.
        in: Barth P.G. International review of child neurology series: disorders of neuronal migration. MacKeith Press, London2003: 127-134
        • Kuban K.C.
        • Teele R.L.
        • Wallman J.
        Septo-optic-dysplasia-schizencephaly. Radiographic and clinical features.
        Pediatr Radiol. 1989; 19: 145-150
        • Dominguez R.
        • Aguirre Vila-Coro A.
        • Slopis J.M.
        • Bohan T.P.
        Brain and ocular abnormalities in infants with in utero exposure to cocaine and other street drugs.
        Am J Dis Child. 1991; 145: 688-695
        • Hahn J.S.
        • Lewis A.J.
        Unilateral schizencephaly and contralateral polymicrogyria associated with umbilical cord mass.
        J Child Neurol. 2003; 18: 232-234
        • Mancini J.
        • Lethel V.
        • Hugonenq C.
        • Chabrol B.
        Brain injuries in early foetal life: consequences for brain development.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 2001; 43: 52-55
        • Kuijpers R.W.
        • van den Anker J.N.
        • Baerts W.
        • von dem Borne A.E.
        A case of severe neonatal thrombocytopenia with schizencephaly associated with anti-HPA-1b and anti-HPA-2a.
        Br J Haematol. 1994; 87: 576-579
        • Dale S.T.
        • Coleman L.T.
        Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: antenatal and postnatal imaging findings in the pediatric brain.
        Am J Neuroradiol. 2002; 23: 1457-1465
        • Pati S.
        • Helmbrecht G.D.
        Congenital schizencephaly associated with in utero warfarin exposure.
        Reprod Toxicol. 1994; 8: 115-120
        • Hung P.C.
        • Wang H.S.
        • Yeh Y.S.
        • Lui T.N.
        • Lee S.T.
        Coexistence of schizencephaly and intracranial arteriovenous malformation in an infant.
        Am J Neuroradiol. 1996; 17: 1921-1922
        • Landrieu P.
        • Lacroix C.
        Schizencephaly, consequence of a developmental vasculopathy? A clinicopathological report.
        Clin Neuropathol. 1994; 13: 192-196
        • al-Alawi A.M.
        • al-Tawil K.I.
        • al-Hathal M.M.
        • Amir I.
        Sporadic neonatal schizencephaly associated with brain calcification.
        Ann Trop Paediatr. 2001; 21 ([discussion 7–8]): 34-37
        • Weissman A.
        • Achiron R.
        • Lipitz S.
        • Blickstein I.
        • Mashiach S.
        The first-trimester growth-discordant twin: an ominous prenatal finding.
        Obstet Gynecol. 1994; 84: 110-114
        • Sherer D.M.
        • Salafia C.M.
        Midtrimester genetic amniocentesis of a twin gestation complicated by immediate severe fetal bradycardia with subsequent associated fetal anomalies.
        Am J Perinatol. 1996; 13: 347-350
        • Briellmann R.S.
        • Jackson G.D.
        • Torn-Broers Y.
        • Berkovic S.F.
        Twins with different temporal lobe malformations: schizencephaly and arachnoid cyst.
        Neuropediatrics. 1998; 29: 284-288
        • Senol U.
        • Karaali K.
        • Aktekin B.
        • Yilmaz S.
        • Sindel T.
        Dizygotic twins with schizencephaly and focal cortical dysplasia.
        Am J Neuroradiol. 2000; 21: 1520-1521
        • Iannetti P.
        • Nigro G.
        • Spalice A.
        • Faiella A.
        • Boncinelli E.
        Cytomegalovirus infection and schizencephaly: case reports.
        Ann Neurol. 1998; 43: 123-127
        • Perez-Jimenez A.
        • Colamaria V.
        • Franco A.
        • et al.
        Rev Neurol. 1998; 26: 42-49
        • Sener R.N.
        Schizencephaly and congenital cytomegalovirus infection.
        J Neuroradiol. 1998; 25: 151-152
        • Papile L.A.
        • Burstein J.
        • Burstein R.
        • Koffler H.
        Incidence and evolution of subependymal and intraventricular hemorrhage: a study of infants with birth weights less than 1500 gm.
        J Pediatr. 1978; 92: 529-534
        • Pape K.E.
        • Wigglesworth J.S.
        Haemorrhage, ischaemia and the perinatal brain. clinics in developmental medicine.
        (No. 69/70) Spastics International Medical Publications, London1979
        • Dolfin T.
        • Skidmore M.B.
        • Fong K.W.
        • Hoskins E.M.
        • Shennan A.T.
        Incidence, severity, and timing of subependymal and intraventricular hemorrhages in preterm infants born in a perinatal unit as detected by serial real-time ultrasound.
        Pediatrics. 1983; 71: 541-546
        • Kuban K.
        • Teele R.L.
        Rationale for grading intracranial hemorrhage in premature infants.
        Pediatrics. 1984; 74: 358-363
        • Volpe J.J.
        Intraventricular hemorrhage and brain injury in the premature infant. Neuropathology and pathogenesis.
        Clin Perinatol. 1989; 16: 361-411
        • Volpe J.
        Brain injury in the premature infant: is it preventable?.
        Pediatr Res. 1990; 27: S28-S33
        • de Vries L.S.
        • Roelants-van Rijn A.M.
        • Rademaker K.J.
        • Van Haastert I.C.
        • Beek F.J.
        • Groenendaal F.
        Unilateral parenchymal haemorrhagic infarction in the preterm infant.
        Europ J Paediatr Neurol. 2001; 5: 139-149
        • Paneth N.
        • Rudelli R.
        • Kazam E.
        • Monte W.
        Brain damage in the preterm infant. Clinics in developmental medicine no. 131.
        MacKeith Press, London1994
        • Gould S.J.
        • Howard S.
        • Hope P.L.
        • Reynolds E.O.R.
        Periventricular intraparenchymal cerebral haemorrhage in preterm infants: the role of venous infarction.
        J Pathol. 1986; 151: 197-202
        • Takashima S.
        • Mito T.
        • Ando Y.
        Pathogenesis of periventricular white matter hemorrhages in preterm infants.
        Brain Dev. 1986; 8: 25-30
        • Nakamura Y.
        • Okudera T.
        • Fukuda S.
        • Hashimoto T.
        Germinal matrix hemorrhage of venous origin in preterm neonates.
        Hum Pathol. 1990; 21: 1059-1062
        • Ghazi-Birry H.
        • Brown W.
        • Moody D.
        • Challa V.
        • Block S.
        • Reboussin D.
        Human germinal matrix: venous origin of hemorrhage and vascular characteristics.
        Am J Neuroradiol. 1977; 18: 219-229
        • Bassan H.
        • Benson C.B.
        • Limperopoulos C.
        • et al.
        Ultrasonographic features and severity scoring of periventricular hemorrhagic infarction in relation to risk factors and outcome.
        Pediatrics. 2006; 117: 2111-2118
        • Dudink J.
        • Lequin M.
        • Weisglas-Kuperus N.
        • Conneman N.
        • Goudoever J.V.
        • Govaert P.
        Venous subtypes of preterm periventricular haemorrhagic infarction.
        Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2007; 93: F201-F206
        • Govaert P.
        • Smets K.
        • Matthys E.
        • Oostra A.
        Neonatal focal temporal lobe or atrial wall haemorrhagic infarction.
        Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1999; 81: F211-F216
        • Berg R.A.
        • Aleck K.A.
        • Kaplan A.M.
        Familial porencephaly.
        Arch Neurol. 1983; 40: 567-569
        • Airaksinen E.M.
        Familial porencephaly.
        Clin Genet. 1984; 26: 236-238
        • Haar L.
        • Dyken P.
        Hereditary nonprogressive athetotic hemiplegia: a new syndrome.
        Neurology. 1977; 27: 849-854
        • Mancini G.M.
        • de Coo I.F.
        • Lequin M.H.
        • Arts W.F.
        Hereditary porencephaly: clinical and MRI findings in two Dutch families.
        Europ J Paediatr Neurol. 2004; 8: 45-54
        • Sensi A.
        • Cerruti S.
        • Calzolari E.
        • Vesce F.
        Familial porencephaly.
        Clin Genet. 1990; 38: 396-397
        • Smit L.M.E.
        • Barth P.G.
        • Valk J.
        • Nijiokiktjien C.
        Familial porencephalic white matter disease in two generations.
        Brain Dev. 1984; 6: 54-58
        • Vilain C.
        • Van Regemorter N.
        • Verloes A.
        • David P.
        • Van Bogaert P.
        Neuroimaging fails to identify asymptomatic carriers of familial porencephaly.
        Am J Med Genet. 2002; 112: 198-202
        • Zonana J.
        • Adornato B.T.
        • Glass S.T.
        • Webb M.J.
        Familial porencephaly and congenital hemiplegia.
        J Pediatrics. 1986; 109: 671-674
        • Gould D.B.
        • Phalan F.C.
        • Breedveld G.J.
        • et al.
        Mutations in Col4a1 cause perinatal cerebral hemorrhage and porencephaly.
        Science. 2005; 308: 1167-1171
        • Vahedi K.
        • Kubis N.
        • Boukobza M.
        • Arnoult M.
        • Massin P.
        • Tournier-Lasserve E.
        COL4A1 mutation in a patient with sporadic, recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage.
        Stroke. 2007; 38: 1461-1464
        • Stewart R.M.
        • Williams R.S.
        • Lukl P.
        • Schoenen J.
        Ventral porencephaly: a cerebral defect associated with multiple congenital anomalies.
        Acta Neuropathol. 1978; 42: 231-235
        • Uchino A.
        • Sawada A.
        • Takase Y.
        • et al.
        Carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis: MR angiographic features and literature review.
        Clin Imaging. 2004; 28: 377-380
        • Hopkins B.
        • Sutton V.R.
        • Lewis R.A.
        • Van den Veyver I.
        • Clark G.
        Neuroimaging aspects of Aicardi syndrome.
        Am J Med Genet Part A. 2008; 146A: 2871-2878
        • Eller K.M.
        • Kuller J.A.
        Porencephaly secondary to fetal trauma during amniocentesis.
        Obstet Gynecol. 1995; 85: 865-867
        • Sharma A.K.
        • Phadke S.
        Porencephaly: a possible complication of chorion villus sampling.
        Indian Pediatr. 1991; 28: 1061-1063
        • Giorgi P.L.
        • Gabrielli O.
        • Catassi C.
        • Coppa G.V.
        Oculo-cerebro-cutaneous syndrome: description of a new case.
        Eur J Pediatr. 1989; 148: 325-326
        • Lauras B.
        • Damon G.
        • Allard D.
        • Claudy A.
        • Chavrier Y.
        Syndrome oculo-cérébrocutané ou syndrome de Delleman et Oorthuys.
        Pédiatrie. 1990; 45: 193-196
        • Fishman M.A.
        Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis.
        J Child Neurol. 1987; 2: 186-193
        • Nowaczyk M.J.M.
        • Mernagh J.R.
        • Bourgeois J.M.
        • Thompson P.J.
        • Jurriaans E.
        Antenatal and postnatal findings in encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis.
        Am J Med Genet. 2000; 91: 261-266
        • Odent S.
        • le Marec B.
        • Catassi C.
        Central nervous system malformations and early end-stage renal disease in oro-facio-digital syndrome type I: a review.
        Am J Med Genet. 1998; 75: 389-394
        • Thauvin-Robinet C.T.
        • Rousseau T.
        Familial orofaciodigital syndrome type I revealed by ultrasound prenatal diagnosis of porencephaly.
        Prenat Diagn. 2001; 21: 466-470
        • Ozanne A.
        • Alvarez H.
        • Krings T.
        • Lasjaunias P.
        Pediatric neurovascular malformations: vein of Galen arteriovenous malformations (VGAM), pial arteriovenous malformations (pial AVM) dural sinus malformations (DSM).
        J Neuroradiol. 2007; 34: 145-166
        • Geibprasert S.
        • Pereira V.
        • Krings T.
        • et al.
        Dural arteriovenous shunts. A new classification of craniospinal epidural venous anatomical bases and classification.
        Stroke. 2008; 39: 2783-2794
        • Rossi A.
        • De Biasio P.
        • Scarso E.
        • et al.
        Prenatal MR imaging of dural sinus malformation: a case report.
        Prenat Diagn. 2006; 26: 11-16
        • Grangé G.
        • LeTohic A.
        • Merzoug V.
        • Adamsbaum C.
        Prenatal demonstration of afferent vessels and progressive thrombosis in a torcular malformation.
        Prenat Diagn. 2007; 27: 670-673
        • de Haan T.R.
        • Padberg R.D.
        • Hagebeuk E.E.
        • et al.
        A case of neonatal dural sinus malformation: clinical symptoms, imaging and neuropathological investigations.
        Europ J Paediatr Neurol. 2008; 12: 41-45
        • Spampinato M.V.
        • Hardin V.
        • Davis M.
        • Chang E.
        • Rumboldt Z.
        Thrombosed fetal dural sinus malformation diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2008; 111: 569-572
        • Gicquel J.M.
        • Potier A.
        • Sitruk S.
        • Girard N.
        Normal outcome after prenatal diagnosis of thrombosis of the torcular Herophili.
        Prenat Diagn. 2000; 20: 824-827
        • Visentin A.
        • Falco P.
        • Pilu G.
        • et al.
        Prenatal diagnosis of thrombosis of the dural sinuses with real-time and color Doppler ultrasound.
        Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 17: 322-325
        • Clode N.
        • Gouveia R.
        • Graca L.M.
        Prenatal diagnosis of thrombosis of the dural sinuses.
        Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2005; 91: 172-174
        • Breysem L.
        • Witters I.
        • Spitz B.
        • Moerman P.
        • Smet M.H.
        Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of an intracranial venous thrombosis. Case report.
        Fetal Diagn Ther. 2006; 21: 13-17
        • Jung E.
        • Won H.S.
        • Kim S.K.
        • et al.
        Spontaneous resolution of prenatally diagnosed dural sinus thrombosis: a case report.
        Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 27: 562-565
        • Van Keirsbilck J.
        • Naulaers G.
        • Cannie M.
        • et al.
        Prenatal diagnosis of a dural sinus thrombosis with favorable outcome.
        Prenat Diagn. 2007; 27: 1056-1058
        • Laurichesse Delmas H.
        • Winer N.
        • Gallot D.
        • et al.
        Prenatal diagnosis of thrombosis of the dural sinuses: report of six cases, review of the literature and suggested management.
        Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2008; 32: 188-198
        • Schwartz N.
        • Monteagudo A.
        • Bornstein E.
        • Timor-Tritsch I.E.
        • Zagzag D.
        • Kudla M.
        Thrombosis of an ectatic torcular herophili: anatomic localization using fetal neurosonography.
        J Ultrasound Med. 2008; 27: 989-991
        • Grigoriadis S.
        • Cohen J.E.
        • Gomori J.M.
        Prenatal thrombosis of torcular Herophili with spontaneous resolution and normal outcome.
        J Neuroimaging. 2008; 18: 177-179
        • Stengele O.
        • Beck A.
        • Hagel E.
        • Thieme T.
        Triple umbilical cord wrap-around as etiology of generalized sinus thrombosis.
        Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Nuklearmed. 2000; 172: 98-99
        • Bednarek N.
        • Scavarda D.
        • Mesmin F.
        • Sabouraud P.
        • Motte J.
        • Morville P.
        Midbrain disconnection: an aetiology of severe central neonatal hypotonia.
        Europ J Paediatr Neurol. 2005; 9: 419-422
        • Roessmann U.
        • Parks P.J.
        Hydranencephaly in vertebral–basilar territory.
        Acta Neuropathol. 1978; 44: 141-143
        • Robinson R.O.
        • Trounce J.Q.
        • Janota I.
        • Cox T.
        Late fetal pontine destruction.
        Pediatr Neurol. 1993; 9: 213-215
        • Sarnat H.B.
        • Benjamin D.R.
        • Siebert J.R.
        • Kletter G.B.
        • Cheyette S.R.
        Agenesis of the mesencephalon and metencephalon with cerebellar hypoplasia: putative mutation in the EN2 gene-report of 2 cases in early infancy.
        Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2002; 5: 54-68
        • Norman M.G.
        Unilateral encephalomalacia in cranial nerve nuclei in neonates: report of two cases.
        Neurology. 1974; 24: 424-427
        • Prats J.M.
        • Monzon M.J.
        • Zuazo E.
        • Garaizar C.
        Congenital nuclear syndrome of oculomotor nerve.
        Pediatr Neurol. 1993; 9: 476-478
        • Bode H.
        • Bubl R.
        • Tutishauser M.
        • Nars P.W.
        Congenital tetraplegia, respiratory insufficiency, and hypoplasia of medulla oblongata.
        Pediatr Neurol. 1994; 10: 161-163
        • Leong S.
        • Ashwell K.W.
        Is there a zone of vascular vulnerability in the fetal brain stem?.
        Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1997; 19: 265-275
        • Poretti A.
        • Leventer R.J.
        • Cowan F.M.
        • et al.
        Cerebellar cleft: a form of prenatal cerebellar disruption.
        Neuropediatrics. 2008; 39: 106-112
        • Ranzini A.C.
        • Shen-Schwarz S.
        • Guzman E.R.
        • Fisher A.J.
        • White M.
        • Vintzileos A.M.
        Prenatal sonographic appearance of hemorrhagic cerebellar infarction.
        J Ultrasound Med. 1998; 17: 725-727
        • Malinger G.
        • Zahalka N.
        • Kidron D.
        • Ben-Sira L.
        • Lev D.
        • Lerman-Sagie T.
        Fatal outcome following foetal cerebellar haemorrhage associated with placental thrombosis.
        Europ J Paediatr Neurol. 2006; 10: 93-96
        • Gorincour G.
        • Rypens F.
        • Lapierre C.
        • Costa T.
        • Audibert F.
        • Robitaille Y.
        Fetal magnetic resonance imaging in the prenatal diagnosis of cerebellar hemorrhage.
        Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 27: 78-80
        • Bresnan M.J.
        • Abroms I.F.
        Neonatal spinal cord transection secondary to intrauterine hyperextension of the neck in breech presentation.
        J Pediatr. 1974; 84: 734-737
        • Maekawa K.
        • Masaki T.
        • Kokubun Y.
        Fetal spinal-cord injury secondary to hyperextension of the neck: no effect of caesarean section.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 1976; 18: 228-232
        • Ruggieri M.
        • Smarason A.K.
        • Pike M.
        Spinal cord insults in the prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal periods.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 1999; 41: 311-317
      1. Young RS, Towfighi J, Marks KH. Focal necrosis of the spinal cord in utero. Arch Neurol 40:654–655.

        • Carrascosa-Romero M.C.
        • Ruiz-Cano R.
        • Abad-Ortiz L.
        • Calatayud-Perez V.
        • Martinez-Gutierrez A.
        • Tebar-Gil R.
        Intrauterine spinal cord injury resulting from a transverse lie. Magnetic resonance imaging.
        Rev Neurol. 2002; 1983: 398-399
        • Milunsky A.
        Hypoxic spinal cord injury and/or abnormality in utero.
        Pediatr Neurol. 2007; 37: 76
        • Mamelak A.N.
        • Cogen P.H.
        • Barkovich A.J.
        The ‘filum intermedium’ sign: focal in utero spinal cord infarct and extraspinal thecal sac.
        J Neurosurg. 1994; 81: 941-946
        • Haldeman S.
        • Fowler G.W.
        • Ashwal S.
        • Schneider S.
        Acute flaccid neonatal paraplegia: a case report.
        Neurology. 1983; 33: 93-95
        • de Leon G.A.
        • Radkowski M.A.
        • Crawford S.E.
        • Swisher C.N.
        • Uzoaru I.
        • de Leon W.
        Persistent respiratory failure due to low cervical cord infarction in newborn babies.
        J Child Neurol. 1995; 10: 200-204
        • Rousseau S.
        • Metral S.
        • Lacroix C.
        • Cahusac C.
        • Nocton F.
        • Landrieu P.
        Anterior spinal artery syndrome mimicking infantile spinal muscular atrophy.
        Am J Perinatol. 1993; 10: 316-318
        • Koyanagi T.
        • Horimoto N.
        • Maeda H.
        • et al.
        Abnormal behavioral patterns in the human fetus at term: correlation with lesion sites in the central nervous system after birth.
        J Child Neurol. 1993; 8: 19-26
        • Morgan C.
        • Newell S.J.
        Cervical spinal cord injury following cephalic presentation and delivery by cesarean section.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 2001; 43: 274-276
        • Achiron R.
        • Pinchas O.H.
        • Reichman B.
        • et al.
        Fetal intracranial haemorrhage: clinical significance of in utero ultrasonographic diagnosis.
        Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1993; 100: 995-999
        • Fogarty K.
        • Cohen H.L.
        • Haller J.O.
        Sonography of fetal intracranial hemorrhage: unusual causes and a review of the literature.
        J Clin Ultrasound. 1989; 17: 366-370
        • McGahan J.P.
        • Haesslein H.C.
        • Meyers M.
        • Ford K.B.
        Sonographic recognition of in utero intraventricular hemorrhage.
        Am J Radiol. 1984; 142: 171-173
        • Catanzarite V.A.
        • Schrimmer D.B.
        • Maida C.
        • Mendoza A.
        Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of intracranial haemorrhage: report of a case with a sinusoidal fetal heart rate tracing, and review of the literature.
        Prenat Diagn. 1995; 15: 229-235
        • Squier M.
        • Chamberlain P.
        • Zaiwalla Z.
        • et al.
        Five cases of brain injury following amniocentesis in mid-term pregnancy.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 2000; 42: 554-560
        • Becroft D.M.
        • Gunn T.R.
        Prenatal cranial haemorrhages in 47 Pacific Islander infants: is traditional massage the cause?.
        NZ Med J. 1989; 102: 207-210
        • Kawabata I.
        • Imai A.
        • Tamaya T.
        Antenatal subdural hemorrhage causing fetal death before labor.
        Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1993; 43: 57-60
        • Strigini F.A.
        • Cioni G.
        • Canapicchi R.
        • Nardini V.
        • Capriello P.
        • Carmignani A.
        Fetal intracranial hemorrhage: is minor maternal trauma a possible pathogenetic factor?.
        Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 18: 335-342
        • Karimi P.
        • Ramus R.
        • Urban J.
        • Perlman J.M.
        Extensive brain injury in a premature infant following a relatively minor maternal motor vehicle accident with airbag deployment.
        J Perinatol. 2004; 24: 454-457
        • Mullaart R.A.
        • Van Dongen P.
        • Gabreels F.J.
        • van Oostrom C.
        Fetal periventricular hemorrhage in von Willebrand's disease: short review and first case presentation.
        Am J Perinatol. 1991; 8: 190-192
        • Folkerth R.D.
        • McLaughlin M.E.
        • Levine D.
        Organizing posterior fossa hematomas simulating developmental cysts on prenatal imaging. Report of 3 cases.
        J Ultrasound Med. 2001; 20: 1233-1240
        • Govaert P.
        • Bridger J.
        • Wigglesworth J.
        Nature of the brain lesion in fetal allo-immune thrombocytopenia.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 1995; 37: 485-495
        • Friede R.L.
        • Mikolasek J.
        Postencephalitic porencephaly, hydranencephaly or polymicrogyria, a review.
        Acta Neuropathol. 1978; 43: 161-168
        • Tominaga I.
        • Kaihou M.
        • Kimura T.
        • et al.
        Infection foetale par le cytomégalovirus.
        Rev Neurol. 1996; 152: 479-482
        • South M.A.
        • Tompkins W.A.F.
        • Morris C.R.
        • Rawls W.E.
        Congenital malformation of the central nervous system associated with genital type (type 2) Herpes virus.
        J Pediatr. 1969; 75: 13-18
        • Hutto C.
        • Arvin A.
        • Jacobs R.
        • et al.
        Intrauterine herpes simplex virus infections.
        J Pediatr. 1987; 110: 97-101
        • Gray P.H.
        • Tudehope D.I.
        • Masel J.
        Cystic encephalomalacia and intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection.
        Pediatr Radiol. 1992; 22: 529-532
        • Scheffer I.E.
        • Baraitser M.
        • Brett E.M.
        Severe microcephaly associated with congenital varicella syndrome.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 1991; 33: 916-920
        • Harding B.
        • Baumer J.A.
        Cong enital varicella-zoster, a serologically proven case with necrotizing encephalitis and malformation.
        Acta Neuropathol. 1988; 76: 311-315
        • Ong C.-L.
        • Daniel M.L.
        Antenatal diagnosis of a porencephalic cyst in congenital varicella-zoster virus infection.
        Pediatr Radiol. 1998; 28: 94
        • Davies B.
        Aortitis and large vessel arteritis in a newborn.
        Hum Pathol. 1985; 16: 1284
        • Vivarellia R.
        • Grossoa S.
        • Cionia M.
        • et al.
        Pseudo-TORCH syndrome or Baraitser–Reardon syndrome: diagnostic criteria.
        Brain Dev. 2001; 23: 18-23
        • Watts P.
        • Kumar N.
        • Ganesh A.
        • et al.
        Chorioretinal dysplasia, hydranencephaly, and intracranial calcifications: pseudo-TORCH or a new syndrome?.
        Eye. 2007 Dec 14;
        • Aicardi J.
        • Goutières F.
        A progressive familial encephalopathy in infancy with calcifications of the basal ganglia and chronic spinal fluid lymphocytosis.
        Ann Neurol. 1984; 15: 49-54
        • Goutières F.
        • Aicardi J.
        • Barth P.G.
        • Lebon P.
        Aicardi–Goutières syndrome: an update and results of interferon studies.
        Ann Neurol. 1999; 44: 900-907
        • Boltshauser E.
        • Steinlin M.
        • Boesch C.
        • Martin E.
        • Schubiger G.
        Magnetic resonance imaging in infantile encephalopathy with cerebral calcification and leukodystrophy.
        Neuropediatrics. 1991; 22: 33-35
        • Russell L.J.
        • Weaver D.D.
        • Bull M.J.
        • Weinbaum M.
        In utero brain destruction resulting in collapse of the fetal skull, microcephaly, scalp rugae, and neurologic impairment: the fetal brain disruption sequence.
        Am J Med Genet. 1984; 17: 509-521
        • Hughes H.E.
        • Miskin M.
        Congenital microcephaly due to vascular disruption: in utero documentation.
        Pediatrics. 1986; 78: 85-87
        • Moore C.A.
        • Weaver D.D.
        • Bull M.J.
        Fetal brain disruption sequence.
        J Pediatr. 1990; 116: 383-386
        • Corona-Rivera J.R.
        • Corona-Rivera E.
        • Romero-Velarde E.
        • Hernandez-Rocha J.
        • Bobadilla-Morales L.
        • Corona-Rivera A.
        Report and review of the fetal brain disruption sequence.
        Eur J Pediatr. 2001; 160: 664-667
        • Gabis L.
        • Gelman-Kohan Z.
        • Mogilner M.
        Microcephaly due to fetal brain disruption sequence.
        J Perinat Med. 1997; 25: 213-215
        • Van Allen M.I.
        Vascular disruptions.
        in: Gilbert-Barness E. Potter's pathology of the fetus and infant. Mosby, St Louis1997: 368 (Ch. 10 II)