Neurodevelopmental outcomes of the late preterm infant

Published:October 12, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.siny.2018.10.002

      Abstract

      Late preterm infants (born at 340/7–366/7 weeks gestation) have been found to have increased morbidity and mortality compared to full term infants. Research has also been done to explore longer-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. This review details neurodevelopmental outcomes from birth to adulthood for late preterm infants. Outcome studies indicate that they are at increased risk of developmental disability, school failure, behavior problems, social and medical disabilities, and death. Many questions still remain regarding late preterm infant neurodevelopmental outcomes and future research should be done into this topic. Given the high prevalence of late preterm births, even small differences in abilities, special education, and length of education may have broader consequences.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Raju T.N.
        • Higgins R.D.
        • Stark A.R.
        • et al.
        Optimizing care and outcome for late-preterm (near-term) infants: a summary of the workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
        Pediatrics. 2006; 118: 1207-1214
        • Woythaler M.A.
        • McCormick M.C.
        • Smith V.C.
        Late preterm infants have worse 24-month neurodevelopmental outcomes than term infants.
        Pediatrics. 2011; 127: e622-e629
        • Cheong J.L.
        • Doyle L.W.
        • Burnett A.C.
        • et al.
        Association between moderate and late preterm birth and neurodevelopment and social-emotional development at age 2 years.
        JAMA Pediatr. 2017; 171e164805
        • Romeo D.M.
        • DiStefano A.
        • Conversano M.
        • et al.
        Neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 and 18 months in late preterm infants.
        Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2010; 14: 503-507
        • Petrini J.R.
        • Dias T.
        • McCormick M.C.
        • et al.
        Increased risk of adverse neurological development for last preterm infants.
        J Pediatr. 2009; 154: 169-176
        • Hirvonen M.
        • Ojala R.
        • Korhonen P.
        • Haataja P.
        • Eriksson K.
        • Gissler M.
        • Lunkkaala T.
        • Tammela O.
        Cerebral palsy among children born moderately and late preterm.
        Pediatrics. 2014; 134 (e1584–3)
        • Rabie N.Z.
        • Bird T.M.
        • Magann E.F.
        • McKelvey S.S.
        ADHD and developmental speech/language disorders in late preterm, early term and term infants.
        J Perinatol. 2015; 35: 660-664
        • Stene-Larsen K.
        • Brandlistuen R.E.
        • Lang A.M.
        • et al.
        Communication impairments in early term and late preterm children: a prospective cohort study following children to age 36 months.
        J Peds. 2014; 162: 1123-1128
        • Curry A.E.
        • Pfeiffer M.R.
        • Slopen M.E.
        • McVeigh K.H.
        Rates of early intervention referral and significant developmental delay, by birthweight and gestational age.
        Matern Child Health J. 2012; 16: 989-996
        • Morse S.B.
        • Zheng H.
        • Tang Y.
        • Roth J.
        Early school-age outcomes of late preterm infants.
        Pediatrics. 2009; 123 (e622–9)
        • Shapiro-Mendoza C.
        • Kotelchuck M.
        • Barfield W.
        • et al.
        Enrollment in early intervention programs among infants born late preterm, early term, and term.
        Pediatrics. 2013; 132: e61-e69
        • Kalia J.L.
        • Visintainer P.
        • Brumberg H.L.
        • et al.
        Comparison of enrollment in interventional therapies between late-preterm and very preterm infants at 12 months' corrected age.
        Pediatrics. 2009; 123: 804-809
        • Martinez-Nadal S.
        • Demestre X.
        • Schonhaut L.
        • et al.
        Impact of neonatal morbidity on the risk of developmental delay in late preterm infants.
        Early Hum Dev. 2018; 116: 40-46
        • Ballantyne M.
        • Benzies K.M.
        • McDonald S.
        • et al.
        Risk of developmental delay: comparison of late preterm and full term Canadian infants at age 12 months.
        Early Hum Dev. 2016; 101: 27-32
        • Wachtel E.V.
        • Zaccario M.
        • Mally P.
        Impact of respiratory morbidities on neurodevelopmental outcome of late preterm infants.
        Am J Perinatol. 2015; 32: 1164-1168
        • Kerstjens J.M.
        • Bocca-Tjeertes I.F.
        • de Winter A.F.
        • et al.
        Neonatal morbidities and developmental delay in moderately preterm-born children.
        Pediatrics. 2012; 130: e265-e272
        • Baron I.S.
        • Erickson K.
        • Ahronovich M.D.
        • et al.
        Cognitive deficit in preschoolers born late-preterm.
        Early Hum Dev. 2011; 87: 115-119
        • Baron I.S.
        • Erickson K.
        • Ahronovich M.D.
        • et al.
        Visuospatial and verbal fluency relative deficits in ‘complicated’ late-preterm preschool children.
        Early Hum Dev. 2009; 85: 751-754
        • McGowan J.E.
        • Alderice F.A.
        • Boylan J.
        • et al.
        Neonatal intensive care and late preterm infants: health and family functioning at three years.
        Early Hum Dev. 2014; 90: 201-205
        • Woythaler M.A.
        • McCormick M.C.
        • Mao W.Y.
        • Smith V.C.
        Late preterm infant and neurodevelopmental outcomes at kindergarten.
        Pediatrics. 2015; 136: 424-431
        • Chyi L.J.
        • Lee H.C.
        • Hintz S.R.
        • et al.
        School outcomes of late preterm infants: special needs and challenges for infants born at 32–36 weeks gestation.
        J Pediatr. 2008; 153: 25-31
        • Quigley M.A.
        • Poulsen G.
        • Boyle E.
        • et al.
        Early term and late preterm birth are associated with poorer school performance at age 5 years: a cohort study.
        Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2012; 97: F167-F173
        • Chan E.
        • Quigley M.A.
        School performance at age 7 years in late preterm and early term birth: a cohort study.
        Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2014; 99: F451-F457
        • Peacock P.J.
        • Henderson J.
        • Odd D.
        • et al.
        Early school attainment in late-preterm infants.
        Arch Dis Child. 2012; 97: 118-120
        • Lipkind H.S.
        • Slopen M.E.
        • Pfeiffer M.R.
        • McVeigh K.H.
        School-age outcomes of late preterm infants in New York City.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 206 (e1–6): 222
        • MacKay D.F.
        • Smith G.C.S.
        • Dobbie R.
        • Pell J.P.
        Gestational age at delivery and special educational need: retrospective cohort study of 407,503 schoolchildren.
        PLoS Med. 2010; 7e1000289
        • Talge N.M.
        • Holzman C.
        • Wang J.
        • et al.
        Late-preterm birth and its association with cognitive and socioemotional outcomes at 6 years of age.
        Pediatrics. 2010; 126: 1124-1131
        • Putnick D.L.
        • Bornstein M.H.
        • Eryigit-Madzwamuse S.
        • Wolke D.
        Long-term stability of language performance in very preterm, moderate-late preterm, and term children.
        J Pediatr. 2017; 181: 74-79
        • Briggs-Gowan M.J.
        • Carter A.S.
        Social-emotional screening status in early childhood predicts elementary school outcomes.
        Pediatrics. 2008; 121: 957-962
        • Wu X.
        • Wei L.
        • Wang N.
        • et al.
        Frequency of spontaneous BOLD signal differences between moderate and late preterm newborns and term newborns.
        Neurotox Res. 2016; 30: 539-551
        • Lindstrom K.
        • Lindblad F.
        • Hjern A.
        Preterm birth and attention-deficit/heractivity disorder in school children.
        Pediatrics. 2011; 127: 858-865
        • Bosquet M.
        • Egeland B.
        The development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms from infancy through adolescence in a longitudinal sample.
        Dev Psychopathol. 2006; 18: 517-550
        • Hayward C.
        • Killen J.D.
        • Kraemer H.C.
        • Taylor C.B.
        Linking self-reported childhood behavioral inhibition to adolescent social phobia.
        J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatr. 1998; 37: 1308-1316
        • Breslau J.
        • Miller E.
        • Breslau N.
        • et al.
        The impact of early behavior disturbances on academic achievement in high school.
        Pediatrics. 2009; 123: 1472-1476
        • van Baar A.L.
        • Vermaas J.
        • Knots E.
        • et al.
        Functioning at school age of moderately preterm children born at 32–36 weeks' gestational age.
        Pediatrics. 2009; 124: 251-257
        • Gurka M.J.
        • LoCasale-Crouch J.
        • Blackman J.A.
        Long-term cognition, achievement, socioemotional, and behavioral development of healthy late-preterm infants.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010; 164: 525-532
        • McGowan J.E.
        • Alderdice F.A.
        • Doran J.
        • et al.
        Impact of neonatal intensive care on late preterm infants: developmental outcomes at 3 years.
        Pediatrics. 2012; 130
        • Harris M.N.
        • Voigt R.G.
        • Barbaresi W.J.
        • et al.
        ADHD and learning disabilities in former late preterm infants: a population-based birth cohort.
        Pediatrics. 2013; 132
        • Moster D.
        • Lie R.T.
        • Markestad T.
        Long-term medical and social consequences of preterm birth.
        N Engl J Med. 2008; 359: 262-273
        • Eide M.G.
        • Oyen N.
        • Skjaerven R.
        • et al.
        Associations of birth size, gestational age, and adult size with intellectual performance: evidence from a cohort of Norwegian men.
        Pediatr Res. 2007; 62: 636-642
        • Ekeus C.
        • Lindstrom K.
        • Lindblad F.
        • et al.
        Preterm birth, social disadvantage, and cognitive competence in Swedish 18- to 19- year old men.
        Pediatrics. 2010; 125: e67-e73
        • Sammallahti S.
        • Heinonen K.
        • Andersson S.
        • et al.
        Growth after late-preterm birth and adult cognitive, academic, and mental health outcomes.
        Pediatr Res. 2017; 81: 767-774
        • Heinonen K.
        • Kajantie E.
        • Pesonen A.K.
        • et al.
        Common mental disorders in young adults born late-preterm.
        Psychol Med. 2016; 46: 2227-2238
        • Heinonen K.
        • Lahti J.
        • Sammallahti S.
        • et al.
        Neurocognitive outcome in young adults born late-preterm.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 2018; 60: 267-274
        • Haynes R.L.
        • Sleeper L.A.
        • Volpe J.J.
        • Kinney H.C.
        Neuropathologic studies of the encephalopathy of prematurity in the late preterm infant.
        Clin Perinatol. 2013; 40: 707-722
        • Kinney H.C.
        • Volpe J.J.
        Modeling the encephalopathy of prematurity in animals: the important role of translational research.
        Neurol Res Int. 2012; 2012: 295389
        • Gulhard-Costa A.M.
        • Larroch J.C.
        Differential growth between the fetal brain and its infratentorial part.
        Early Hum Dev. 1990; 23: 27-40
        • Huppi P.S.
        • Warfield S.
        • Kikinis R.
        • et al.
        Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of brain development in premature and mature newborns.
        Ann Neurol. 1998; 43: 224
        • Limperopoulos C.
        • Soul J.S.
        • Gauvreau K.
        • et al.
        Late gestation cerebellar growth is rapid and impeded by premature birth.
        Pediatrics. 2005; 115: 688-695
        • Kinney H.C.
        The near-term (late-preterm) human brain and risk for periventricular leukomalacia: a review.
        Semin Perinatol. 2006; 30: 81-88
        • Walsh J.M.
        • Doyle L.W.
        • Anderson P.J.
        • et al.
        Moderate and late preterm birth: effect on brain size and maturation at term-equivalent age.
        Radiology. 2014; 273: 232-240
        • Bhutta A.T.
        • Anand K.J.
        Abnormal cognition and behavior in preterm neonates linked to smaller brain volumes.
        Trends Neurosci. 2001; 24 (discussion 131–2): 129-130
        • Folkerth R.D.
        • Haynes R.L.
        • Borenstein N.
        • et al.
        Developmental lag of superoxide dismutases reative to other antioxidant enzymes in premyelinated human telencephalic white matter.
        J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2004; 14: 265-274
        • Cheong J.L.
        • Thompson D.K.
        • Spittle A.J.
        • et al.
        Brain volumes at term-equivalent age are associated with 2-year neurodevelopment in moderate and late preterm children.
        J Pediatr. 2016; 174: 91-97
        • Lind A.
        • Haataja L.
        • Rautava L.
        • et al.
        Relations between brain volumes, neuropsychological assessment and parental questionnaire in prematurely born children.
        Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatr. 2010; 19: 407-417
        • Woodward L.J.
        • Edgin J.O.
        • Thompson D.
        • Inder T.E.
        Object working memory deficits predicted by early brain injury and development in the preterm infant.
        Brain. 2005; 128: 2578-2587
        • Thompson D.K.
        • Wood S.J.
        • Doyle L.W.
        • et al.
        Neonate hippocampal volumes: prematurity, perinatal predictors, and 2-year outcome.
        Ann Neurol. 2008; 63: 642-651
        • Rogers C.E.
        • Barch D.M.
        • Sylvester C.M.
        • et al.
        Altered gray matter volume and school age anxiety in children born late preterm.
        J Pediatr. 2014; 165: 928-935
        • Brumbaugh J.E.
        • Conrad A.L.
        • Lee J.K.
        • et al.
        Altered brain function, structure, and developmental trajectory in children born late preterm.
        Pediatr Res. 2016; 80: 197-203
        • Wu X.
        • Wei L.
        • Wang N.
        • et al.
        Frequency of spontaneous BOLD signal differences between moderate and late preterm newborns and term newborns.
        Neurotox Res. 2016; 30: 539-551
        • Spittle A.J.
        • Orton J.
        • Doyle L.W.
        • Boyd R.
        Early developmental intervention programs post hospital discharge to prevent motor and cognitive impairments in preterm infants.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007; CD005495