Positioning as a conservative treatment option in infants with micrognathia and/or cleft

  • Karen A. Waters
    Correspondence
    Sleep Medicine, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, NSW, 2145, Australia.
    Affiliations
    The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, 2145, NSW, Australia

    Department of Child and Adolescent Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, NSW, 2050, Australia
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Published:September 17, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.siny.2021.101282

      Highlights

      • Polysomnography (PSG) provides detailed measures of sleep and breathing
      • PSG data indicate that not all infants have improved sleep and breathing when prone compared to supine
      • There is no current consensus on the parameters used to define acceptable limits for PSG parameters when infants are prone
      • Additional home monitoring is recommended when prone positioning is advised to manage an infant's airway obstruction

      Abstract

      Evaluation and management of airway obstruction in prone position were reviewed from studies in infants with micrognathia and/or cleft palate, using polysomnography (PSG) or similar measures, and comparing prone against other positions. Most studies identified were case series from specialist referral centres. Airway obstruction appears more severe on PSG than clinical assessment, but there is no consensus for PSG definitions of mild, moderate or severe airway obstruction. Infants show individual variability in responses to positioning; sleep quality tends to improve when prone, but 22–25% have better respiratory outcomes when supine. Most centres recommend home monitoring if advising that an infant be placed prone to manage their airway obstruction. In conclusion, in case series, success rates for managing infant airway obstruction by prone positioning vary from 12 to 76%. PSG studies comparing prone with other sleep positions can help differentiate which infants show improved airway obstruction and/or sleep quality when positioned prone.

      Keywords

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